Accessible Page Links

Page Tools

Main page Content



P-12 Literacy and Reading Process


Reading is fundamental to learning in all subjects; therefore every teacher is a teacher of reading. Improving learning outcomes, with an emphasis on reading, is one of the targeted priorities for all students in the DETE Strategic Plan 2014-2018.
(A Whole School Approach to Teaching Reading DETE)

Reading and the teaching of reading is a priority agenda regionally, state-wide, nationally and internationally. The alignment with Literacy and ‘being literate’ is clear – if we don’t address reading as a core component of Literacy, we are doing a great disservice to the learners in our care.

Chancellor State College’s Curriculum Framework is underpinned by Robert Marzano’s Art and Science of Teaching. Any aspect of our curriculum, including the P-12 Effective Teaching of Reading, is framed through evidence based learning through deliberate practice.

There is a wealth of research that provides a basis for planning effective reading instruction. As educators we need to beware that researchers often view through a particular lens. A comprehensive approach to instruction can be achieved by combining research findings, viewed through many lenses.

A well-developed theory, based on knowledge, experience and reflection will assist teachers in planning, designing and delivering learning experiences rather than “activities” in the teaching of reading across year levels and KLAs.

Elements of Reading

In 1997, US Congress asked the Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) at the National Institutes of Health, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, to convene a national panel to assess the effectiveness of different approaches used to teach children to read.

In April 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released its research-based findings in two reports and a video entitled, "Teaching Children to Read."

The panel found that a combination of techniques is effective for teaching children to read:

  • Phonemic awareness—the knowledge that spoken words can be broken apart into smaller segments of sound known as phonemes. Children who are read to at home—especially material that rhymes—often develop the basis of phonemic awareness. Children who are not read to will probably need to be taught that words can be broken apart into smaller sounds.
  • Phonics—the knowledge that letters of the alphabet represent phonemes, and that these sounds are blended together to form written words. Readers who are skilled in phonics can sound out words they haven't seen before, without first having to memorize them.
  • Fluency—the ability to recognise words easily, read with greater speed, accuracy, and expression, and to better understand what is read. Children gain fluency by practicing reading until the process becomes automatic; guided oral repeated reading is one approach to helping children become fluent readers.
  • Guided oral reading—reading out loud while getting guidance and feedback from skilled readers. The combination of practice and feedback promotes reading fluency.
  • Teaching vocabulary words—teaching new words, either as they appear in text, or by introducing new words separately. This type of instruction also aids reading ability.
  • Reading comprehension strategies—techniques for helping individuals to understand what they read. Such techniques involve having students summarise what they've read, to gain a better understanding of the material. 
At Chancellor State College, educators are expected to understand what the components of the Big Six skills are, how to assess them and how to design appropriate learning experiences to challenge and support all learners. This includes employing:
  • valid and reliable screening, diagnostic and progress assessments
  • coherent instructional design which includes alignment with the Australian Curriculum and the Art and Science of Teaching Framework
  • explicit, systematic and differentiated instruction which includes the use of an instructional model such as the Gradual Release of Responsibility (Pearson & Gallagher)
  • high reliability literacy teaching procedures (Munro) 

Below are links to curriculum and reading theory frameworks that underpin the teaching of reading at Chancellor State College:

Australian Curriculum




Moving Literacy Forward P-12

DETE Whole School Approach to Literacy


Luke and Freebody




Chancellor State College ASoT Pedagogical Framework



 Marzano Art and Science of
Teaching Framework






Understanding the reading process